Elements of Mental Philosophy: Abridged and Designed as a Text-book for Academies and High Schools

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Harper, 1843 - Intellect - 480 pages
 

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Contents

All sensation is properly and truly in the mind 11 Sensations are not images or resemblances of objects
25
The connexion between the mental and physical change not ca pable of explanation
26
Of the meaning and nature of perception 14 Perception makes us acquainted with a material world
27
Of the primary and secondary qualities of matter
28
Of the secondary qualities of matter
29
CHAPTER III
30
Connexion of the brain with sensation and perception
31
Order in which the senses are to be considered 20 Of the sense and sensations of smell
32
Of perceptions of smell in distinction from sensations
33
Of the sense and the sensations of taste
34
CHAPTER IV
35
Varieties of the sensation of sound
36
Manner in which we learn the place of sounds
37
Page
38
ib
40
Of certain indefinite feelings sometimes ascribed to the touch
44
Relation between the sensation and what is outwardly signified
45
ib
46
Statement of the mode or process in visual perception
47
Of the original and acquired perceptions of sight
48
The idea of extension not originally from sight
49
Of the knowledge of the figure of bodies by the sight
50
Illustration of the subject from the blind
51
Measurements of magnitude by the
52
Of objects seen in a mist 41 Of the sun and moon when seen in the horizon
53
Of the estimation of distances by sight
54
Signs by means of which we estimate distance by sight
55
Estimation of distance when unaided by intermediate objects
56
Of objects seen on the ocean
57
CHAPTER VII
58
ib
62
Application of habit to the touch
64
Other striking instances of habits of touch
65
Habits considered in relation to the sight
66
Sensations may possess a relative as well as positive increase of power
68
Of habits as modified by particular callings and arts
69
The law of habit considered in reference to the perception of the outlines and forms of objects 69
70
Notice of some facts which favour the above doctrine
71
Additional illustrations of Mr Stewarts doctrine
72
CHAPTER VIII
73
Of conceptions of objects of sight
74
Of the influence of habit on our conceptions
76
Influence of habit on conceptions of sight 63 Of the subserviency of our conceptions to description
77
Of conceptions attended with a momentary belief
78
Conceptions which are joined with perceptions
81
Conceptions as connected with fictitious representations
82
CHAPTER IX
83
Simple mental states not susceptible of definition 83 ib
84
Simple mental states representative of a reality
85
Origin of complex notions and their relation to simple
86
Supposed complexness without the antecedence of simple feelings
87
73
88
74
89
Complex notions of external origin
90
76
91
77
92
78
93
Mental process in separating and abstracting them
94
General abstract notions the same with genera and species
95
81
96
Early classifications sometimes incorrect 83 Illustrations of our earliest classifications
97
Of the nature of general abstract ideas 92
98
The power of general abstraction in connexion with numbers c
99
Of the speculations of philosophers and others
100
CHAPTER XI
101
Of different degrees of attention
102
Dependence of memory on attention
103
Of exercising attention in reading
104
Alleged inability to command the attention
105
Instances of notions which have an internal origin
106
CHAPTER XII
107
Dreams are often caused by our sensations
108
Ideas of existence mind selfexistence and personal identity
109
Explanation of the incoherency of dreams 1st cause 97 Second cause of the incoherency of dreams
110
Apparent reality of dreams 1st cause
111
Apparent reality of dreams 2d cause
112
Of our estimate of time in dreaming
113
Explanation of the preceding statements
114
The idea of space not of external origin
115
The idea of space has its origin in suggestion
116
PART II
117
Occasions of the origin of the idea of power
118
CHAPTER I
119
Declaration of Locke that the soul has knowledge in itself ib 100 101 102 103 104
120
105
121
107
122
108
123
110
126
111
127
113
128
114
129
135
135
Consciousness the 2d source of internal knowledge its nature
136
Further remarks on the proper objects of consciousness
137
Consciousnes a ground or law of belief 126 Instances of knowledge developed in consciousness
138
CHAPTER IV
140
Occasions on which feelings of relation may arise
141
Of the use of correlative terms 130 Of relations of identity and diversity
142
11 Relations of degree and names expressive of them
143
11 Of relations of proportion 137
144
IV Of relations of place or position
145
VII Of relations of cause and effect
148
Of complex terms involving the relation of cause and effect
149
Connexion of relative suggestion with reasoning 149
150
CHAPTER V
151
Of the general laws of association
152
Resemblance the first general law of association
153
Of resemblance in the effects produced
154
Contrast the second general or primary
155
Contiguity the third general or primary
157
Cause and effect the fourth primary
158
ASSOCIATION 11 SECONDARY LAWS Section Page 147 Secondary laws and their connexion with the primary
159
Of the influence of lapse of time
160
Secondary law of repetition or habit
161
Of the secondary law of coexistent emotion
162
Original difference in the mental constitution
163
The foregoing as applicable to the sensibilities
164
CHAPTER VII
166
Of memory as a ground or law of belief
167
Of differences in the strength of memory
168
Of circumstantial memory or that species of memory which is based on the relations of contiguity in time and place
169
Illustrations of specific or circumstantial memory
170
Of philosophic memory or that species of memory which is based on other relations than those of contiguity
171
Illustrations of philosophic memory
172
Of that species of memory called intentional recollection
173
Nature of intentional recollection
174
Marks of a good memory
175
Directions or rules for the improvement of the memory
177
Further directions for the improvement of the memory
179
Of observance of the truth in connexion with memory
180
CHAPTER VIII
181
Mental action quickened by influence on the physical system
183
Other instances of quickened mental action and of a restoration of thoughts
184
Approval and illustrations of these views from Coleridge
185
Use of definitions and axioms in demonstrative reasoning
186
Application of the principles of this chapter to education
187
Demonstrations do not admit of different degrees of belief
188
life
189
CHAPTER IX
190
Definition of reasoning and of propositions
191
Process of the mind in all cases of reasoning
192
Illustration of the preceding statement
193
Grounds of the selection of propositions
194
Reasoning implies the existence of antecedent or assumed propo sitions
195
Further considerations on this subject
196
Of differences in the power of reasoning
197
Of habits of reasoning
198
Of reasoning in connexion with language or expression
199
Illustration of the foregoing section
200
Page
201
Of being influenced in reasoning by a love of the truth
211
Care to be used in correctly stating the subject of discussion
212
Consider the kind of evidence applicable to the subject 199 Reject the aid of false arguments or sophisms 212 213
213
Fallacia equivocationis or the use of equivocal terms and phrases
215
Of the sophism of estimating actions and character from the cir cumstances of success merely
216
Of adherence to our opinions
217
Effects on the mind of debating for victory instead of truth 216 217
218
CHAPTER XIII
219
The imagination closely related to the reasoning power
220
Definition of the power of imagination 219 220
221
Illustration of the statements of the preceding section 214 On the utility of the faculty of the imagination 210 Grounds of the preference of one conce...
224
Illustration of the subject from Milton 224 225
225
Importance of the imagination in connexion with reasoning
229
DISORDERED INTELLECTUAL ACTION II INSANITY 227 Meaning of the term insanity
244
Of disordered or alienated sensations
245
Of disordered or alienated external perception
246
Disordered state or insanity of original suggestion
247
231
248
232
249
Disordered or alienated association Lightheadedness
250
235
251
Of the power of reasoning in the partially insane
253
Instance of the above form of insanity of reasoning
254
Partial mental alienation by means of the imagination
255
Insanity or alienation of the power of belief
256
DIVISION II
259
INTRODUCTION CLASSIFICATION OF THE SENSIBILITIES 240 Reference to the general division of the whole mind 244 245
261
Division of the sensibilities into natural or pathematic and moral
262
The moral and natural sensibilities have different objects
263
The moral sensibilities higher in rank than the natural 245 The moral sensibilities wanting in brutes
264
Classification of the natural sensibilities
265
Classification of the moral sensibilities
266
PART I
267
CHAPTER I
269
The place of emotions considered in reference to other mental acts
270
perceptions
271
Emotions characterized by rapidity and variety
272
EMOTIONS OF BEAUTY Section Pago 252 Characteristics of emotions of beauty
273
Of what is meant by beautiful objects
274
Of the distinction between beautiful and other objects
275
Grounds or occasions of emotions of beauty various
276
All objects not equally fitted to cause these emotions
277
A susceptibility of emotions of beauty an ultimate principle of our mental constitution
278
Remarks on the beauty of forms The circle
279
Original or intrinsic beauty The circle
280
Of square pyramidal and triangular forms
281
Of the original or intrinsic beauty of colours
283
Further illustrations of the original beauty of colours
284
Of sounds considered as a source of beauty
286
Illustrations of the original beauty of sounds
287
Further instances of the original beauty of sounds
290
Of motion as an element of beauty
291
Explanation of the beauty of motion from Kaimes
292
CHAPTER III
293
Objects may become beautiful by association merely
294
Further illustrations of associated feelings
295
Instances of national associations
297
The sources of associated beauty coincident with those of human happiness
298
Summary of views in regard to the beautiful
299
CHAPTER IV
300
The occasions of the emotions of sublimity various
301
Great extent or expansion an occasion of sublimity
302
Of depth in connexion with the sublime
303
Of colours in connexion with the sublime
304
Of motion in connexion with the sublime
305
Indications of power accompanied by emotions of the sublime 306
308
CHAPTER V
309
Occasions of emotions of the ludicrous
310
Of what understood by wit
311
Of wit when employed in aggrandizing objects
312
Of the character and occasions of humour
313
Of the practical utility of feelings of the ludicrous
314
Emotions of melancholy sorrow and grief
315
Emotions of surprise astonishment and wonder
316
Emotions of diffidence modesty and shame
317
CLASS II
318
THE DESIRES
319
CHAPTER I
321
Of the place of desires in relation to other mental states
322
The desires characterized by comparative fixedness and perma nency
323
Desires always imply an object desired
324
Of variations or degrees in the strength of the desires
325
Classification of this part of the sensibilities
326
The principles based upon desire susceptible of a twofold op eration
327
CHAPTER II
328
Instances of instincts in the human mind
330
Further instances of instincts in men
331
Of the final cause or use of instincts
332
CHAPTER III
333
Of the prevalence and origin of appetites for intoxicating drugs
334
Of the twofold operation and the morality of the appetites
335
CHAPTER IV
336
Principle of selfpreservation or the desire of continued existence
337
Of the twofold action of the principle of selfpreservation
338
Further illustrations of the principle of curiosity
339
Of the twofold operation and the morality of the principle of curi osity
340
Imitativeness or the propensity to imitation 341
341
Practical results of the principle of imitation
342
Section Page 328 Of the natural desire of esteem
344
Of the desire of esteem as a rule of conduct
345
Of the desire of possession
346
Of the moral character of the possessory principle
347
Of perversions of the possessory desire
348
Of the desire of power
349
Of the moral character of the desire of power
350
Propensity of selflove or the desire of happiness
351
Of selfishness as distinguished from selflove
352
Reference to the opinions of philosophical writers
353
The principle of sociality original in the human mind
354
Evidence of the existence of this principle of sociality
355
Other illustrations of the existence of this principle
356
Relation of the social principle to civil society
357
CHAPTER V
358
Of the complex nature of the affections
359
Of resentment or anger
360
Illustrations of instinctive resentment
361
Of voluntary in distinction from instinctive resentment
362
Tendency of anger to excess and the natural checks to it
363
Other reasons for checking and subduing the angry passions
365
Modifications of resentment Peevishness
366
Modifications of resentment Envy
367
Modifications of resentment Jealousy
368
Modifications of resentment Revenge
369
CHAPTER VI
371
Love in its various forms characterized by a twofold action
372
Illustrations of the strength of the parental affection
374
Of the filial affection
375
The filial affection original or implanted
376
Illustrations of the filial affection
377
Of the nature of the fraternal affection
379
On the utility of the domestic affections
380
Of the moral character of the domestic affections and of the be nevolent affections generally
381
Of the moral character of the voluntary exercises of the benevo lent affections
382
Of the connexion between benevolence and rectitude
383
Of humanity or the love of the human race
384
Further proofs in support of the doctrine of an innate humanity or love for the human race
386
Proofs of a humane or philanthropic principle from the existence of benevolent institutions
387
Other remarks in proof of the same doctrine
388
Of patriotism or love of country
389
Of the affection of friendship
390
Of the affection of pity or sympathy
391
Of the moral character of pity
392
Of the affection of gratitude
394
LOVE TO THE SUPREME BEING
395
Further illustrations of the results of the absence of this principle
401
Of the origin of secondary active principles
408
Classification of the moral sensibilities
414
Of the close connexion between conscience and reasoning
420
Further proof from language and literature
426
Feelings of obligation have particular reference to the future
430
Diversities in moral decisions dependent on differences in
436
CHAPTER V
442
THE SENSIBILITIES OR SENSITIVE NATURE
449
426
451
Section Page 428 Disordered action of the principle of selfpreservation
454
Disordered and alienated action of the possessory principle
455
Disordered action of imitativeness or the principle of imitation
456
Disordered action of the principle of sociality
457
Further remarks on the disordered action of the social propensity
458
Of the disordered action of the desire of esteem
459
Disordered action of the desire of power
460
CHAPTER II
461
Familiar instances of sympathetic imitation
462
Instances of sympathetic imitation at the poorhouse of Harlem
463
Other instances of this species of imitation
464
CHAPTER III
465
Of sudden and strong impulses of the mind
467
Insanity of the affections or passions
468
Of the mental disease termed hypochondriasis
469
Of intermissions of hypochondriasis and of its remedies
471
Disordered action of the passion of fear
473
CHAPTER IV
475
Of accountability in connexion with this form of disordered con science
476
Of natural or congenital moral derangement
477
Of moral accountability in cases of natural or congenital moral derangement
479

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Page 103 - The crow doth sing as sweetly as the lark, When neither is attended ; and, I think The nightingale, if she should sing by day, When every goose is cackling, would be thought No better a musician than the wren.
Page 165 - Where the great Sun begins his state Robed in flames and amber light, The clouds in thousand liveries dight; While the ploughman, near at hand, Whistles o'er the furrowed land, And the milkmaid singeth blithe, And the mower whets his scythe, And every shepherd tells his tale Under the hawthorn in the dale.
Page 240 - Is this a dagger which I see before me, The handle toward my hand? Come, let me clutch thee : I have thee not, and yet I see thee still. Art thou not, fatal vision, sensible To feeling as to sight? or art thou but A dagger of the mind; a false creation, Proceeding from the heat-oppressed brain?
Page 231 - The sooty films that play upon the bars Pendulous, and foreboding in the view Of superstition prophesying still Though still deceived, some stranger's near approach.
Page 310 - The sun had long since in the lap Of Thetis taken out his nap, And like a lobster boiled, the morn From black to red began to turn," The imagination modifies images, and gives unity to variety ; it sees all things in one, il piti nelV uno.
Page 120 - ... as we do from bodies affecting our senses. This source of ideas every man has wholly in himself; and though it be not sense, as having nothing to do with external objects, yet it is very like it, and might properly enough be called internal sense.
Page 412 - God, but the doers of the law shall be justified : for when the Gentiles, which have not the law, do by nature the things contained in the law, these, having not the law, are a law unto themselves : which shew the work of the law written in their hearts, their conscience also bearing witness, and their thoughts the mean while accusing or else excusing one another ;) in the day when God shall judge the secrets of men by Jesus Christ according to my gospel.
Page 388 - Lands intersected by a narrow frith Abhor each other. Mountains interposed Make enemies of nations, who had else Like kindred drops been mingled into one.
Page 189 - ... according to the deeds done in the body, whether they be good or whether they be evil...
Page 78 - The poet's eye, in a fine frenzy rolling, Doth glance from heaven to earth, from earth to heaven; And , as imagination bodies forth The forms of things unknown, the poet's pen Turns them to shape , and gives to airy nothing A local habitation and a name.

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