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merce and contact with the world at large are all on the side of Jersey.

The famous Prynne, too, in his way, described the castle in which he was confined; for one of the violent acts of Charles I. was to banish him to Jersey, and Burton to Guernsey. The following description is from his pen :

Mont Orgueil castle is a lofty pile
Within the eastern part of Jersey isle,
Seated upon a rocke, full large and high,
Close by the sea-shore, next to Normandie,
Near to a sandy bay, where boats doe ride
Within a peere, safe from both wind and tide.
Three parts thereof the flowing seas surround,
The fourth (north-westwards) is firm rockie ground
A proud high mount it hath, a rampier long,
Foure gates, four posternes, bulwarks, sconces strong;
Fifteen cast pieces of artillery,

With sundry murdering chambers planted so,
As best may fence itself, and hurt a foe;

A guard of soldiers (strong enough til warre
Begins to thunder) in it lodged are,

Who watch and ward it duly night and day,
For which the king allows them monthly pay.
The Governor, if present, here doth lye,
If absent, his lieutenant deputy;

A man of warre the kays doth keep, and lock
The gates each night of this high towering rock.
The castle 's ample, airy, healthy, and

The prospect pleasant both by sea and land.

Two boystrous foes, sometimes assault with losse

The fortresse which their progresse seems to crosse.

The raging waves below, which ever dash

Themselves in pieces, whiles with it they clash, &c., &c.

It is only necessary to add, that, though the main current of the history of the Channel Islands points to France as the quarter from which danger was to be expected, it does not do so

wholly and exclusively. At an early period Spain was formidable, and as late as 1593, so wary a man as the Lord Keeper writes to the two Houses of Parliament that "the King of Spain, since he hath usurped upon the kingdom of Portugal, hath thereby grown mighty. He keepeth a navy

armed to impeach all trade of merchandise from England to Gascoigne and Guienne. Yea, by means of his interest in St. Maloes, a port full of shipping for the war, he is a dangerous neighbour to the Queen's isles of Jersey and Guernsey, ancient possessions of this crown, and never conquered in the greatest wars with France."

In the times, however, now coming under notice, it is France which is exclusively to be guarded against.

[The view of Mont Orgueil Castle in the subjoined illustration represents its appearance at the present day. The castle is described in a previous page.]

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View taken from the sands in Grouille Bay, Jersey




DURING the earlier years of the reign of Charles I., and at the beginning of the civil war, there was no great difference between the political feeling of the Jerseymen and Guernseymen. As events, however, went on, a great change took place, ending in the development of an antagonism, which happily ended, at the Restoration, in a common feeling of loyalty. The two islands took different sides; Jersey being loyalist, Guernsey republican-each remaining, however, thoroughly and inflexibly Protestant.

In Jersey, the influence of Sir George Carteret was inordinately great; great, though by no means unopposed. He was himself a Jersey man, and far from being the only one of his name. In a complaint against him, laid before the parliament in 1642, the very circumstance of his being an islander is made an objection. He was too much a pluralist himself, and he had too many kinsmen for whom he found places. He was overbearing in manners, and arbitrary in his execution of the laws. He was, nevertheless, strong enough to hold the king's party together; and in Jersey, this was a decided majority.

In Guernsey, Sir Philip Osborne was governor; but in Guernsey, the feeling beyond the walls of the castle, was republican. The chief details of the effective and successful opposition of the

island, are connected with the names of De Beauvoir, Carey and De Havilland.



Not only were the two governors in communication with one another, but, on the 2nd of February, 1642, the day of what may be called the Guernsey Rebellion, Carteret was in Castle Cornet, with the credit of having arrived from England with arms and ammunition to be employed against the islands, and of having the intention to proceed to France for the purpose of levying The meeting before which this information was laid was held at the house of Sir John Fautrart, the lieutenant-bailiff, with Peter de Beauvoir, and Thomas Carey, jurats, in attendTo the presence of Carteret in the island one of the constables gave evidence. The whole movement seems to have been eminently formal and legal. Upon the constable's deposition, the above-named jurats and Fautrart applied to the bailiff, John de Queteville, for advice; who merely replied that if he were ordered to arrest Sir G. Carteret he would do so. The two jurats then sent the sheriff to Sir P. Osborne to demand his guest, to which application no answer was vouchsafed. Further prevarication followed, until, by the 22nd of March, 1642, the Committee of Lords and Commons, appointed to watch over the safety of the kingdom, had invested the provisional government of the island in the hands of thirteen gentlemen, of whom De Beauvoir was president. Their instructions, inter alia, were as follow:

"1.--You shall seize the person of Sir Peter Osborne, knight, deputy-governor of the island of Guernsey, and the castle now in his custody; and you shall send him under a safe escort to the parliament, to answer such offences, contempts, and other misdemeanours, as shall be objected against him.

"2.-You shall take into your custody, by inventory, all money, plate, and other goods belonging to the said Sir Peter Osborne, and keep the same till further directions be given by this committee, or by parliament.

"3.-You shall appoint a captain, or commander-in-chief, and other subordinate officers over all the trained bands of the said island, who shall lead, conduct, and exercise the soldiers, according to the discipline of war.



"4.-You shall, by force of arms, take possession of the said castle, and fight with, kill, and slay all who make any resistance to you in the execution of this commission, and shall keep the said castle to the use of the king and kingdom of England.

“5.—You shall oppose and suppress all forces which may arrive in the island, without authority and consent of both houses of parliament.

"6.—You shall assist all ships sent by authority of both houses of parliament for the defence of the said island, and guarding of the seas, and protection of his majesty's good subjects in those parts.

“ 7.—You shall seize upon the persons and estates of all such as stand in defence of the said Sir Peter Osborne, and all others that have made, or shall make, war against the parliament.

"S.-You shall seize upon all ships, barks, and all goods and provisions employed for the relief of the said castle or fort, being in actual war against the parliament, or the property of those who have in any manner aided or assisted those who were, or are, in such actual war.

"9.-You shall, from time to time, advise both houses of parliament, or this committee, of your proceedings, and execute such further instructions as you may receive from them.

"10.-You shall collect the rents and other profits belonging to the governor of the said island, and shall employ the same for the defence thereof, and other public charges.

"11.-You shall grant and dispose of all such licenses for transporting any commodities for the relief and supply of the island out of the kingdom of England, as by law are warranted, in such manner as shall stand with justice, and due respect to the good of the said island, and the inhabitants thereof."

Osborne, however, defied them, and threatened to turn his cannon on the town. Then the Commissioners wrote to the Parliament. Then Charles wrote to the Earl of Danby as if he had been actually governor. He was to promise the islanders that

"In that island, that, as we ever have had most especial care to preserve the Protestant profession of the Christian religion with your ancient government among you, your liberties, persons, and properties, as settled by the laws and customs of your island, so shall we ever preserve them from all innovations or alterations whatsoever, whereby you may enjoy the blessings of tranquillity under us, as heretofore under our predecessors. But in case you find any particular person, (for we have had of late too much experience of those spirits) who shall cast off this, our just command and authority, you, the bailiff and jurats, are to

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