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St. Helier's in Jersey, and St. Peter's Port in Guernsey, contain nearly half the population in each island. Thus in St. Helier's the inhabitants at the last census consisted of 12,813 males, and 16,715 females. Total, 29,528. This shows a decrease of the town population to the extent of 213 since 1851, but an increase in the relative disproportion of females and males; for the males have diminished by 577, and the females have increased by 364.

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The number of houses in the town of St. Helier's, Jersey, in 1861, was 4,188 inhabited, 245 uninhabited, and 30 building. Total, 4,463. The average number of inhabitants to each house in the town was therefore 7.04. In Guernsey, the numbers were 2,459, 167 and 16. Total, 2,642. Average 6.67.

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It is worthy of remark that, in Jersey, in 1861, sixteen persons out of a thousand had attained the age of seventy-five, or upwards; whereas more than twenty out of a thousand were of that age in Guernsey. The following results are all in a similar direction, as showing a higher value of life in the smaller island:

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Both islands exhibit favourable results compared with England generally, and with the West of England specially. There cannot be a doubt that cæteris paribus persons above the age of fifty, are likely to live longer in the islands than in England. The difference shown in the above table is very remarkable and significant, but is perhaps partly due to the much greater amount of the floating and foreign population in the larger island. A comparison with the value of life, in 1851, as given in the census returns of that year, shows a remarkable improvement in both islands.

The occupations of fisherman and quarryman are not only much more common in Guernsey than in Jersey, but the results of comparison are curious in other respects. Thus, in 1861, there were, in Jersey, three hundred and seventy-four persons following the employment of fisherman, of whom only forty-six were of the age of fifty-five, or upwards. Six of these were seventy-five, or upwards. In Guernsey, with half the total population, as many as two hundred and fifty-three persons were returned as fishermen, fifty-seven of whom were of the age of fifty-five and upwards, and fourteen of these were upwards of seventy-five years of age. There were in Jersey, in 1861, only thirty-four persons working in quarries, and eighty in cutting and polishing stone. In Guernsey, six hundred and fifty-three were quarry men, and one hundred and eleven employed in cutting and polishing stone.

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Education was less completely carried out in public schools in Jersey than in Guernsey at the date of the census of 1851. The following tabular statement is extracted from the published report:

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It is believed that this state of things still exists to some extent, the attendance in Guernsey being larger in proportion than in Jersey.

5. Miscellaneous Statistics.

The following general statistics, also from the returns from 1861, may be added with advantage:

Inmates

Persons employed in farming occupa- of work- Prisoners in Lunatics in Deaf and

tions.

houses &
hospitals

gaol

asylum.

dumb.

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The number of labourers is small in both islands, owing to the extreme division of property leaving but few farms on which extra labour is required. It is smaller in proportion in Guernsey than in Jersey, no doubt for the same reason.

The proportion of foreigners in Jersey is very large, the number of English, Scotch, and Irish, being about 13,000, and of French, 2,000; the native population being 41,000, most of

whom live in the country. Of the town inhabitants, the English residents are chiefly persons living on their incomes, and the French are generally artisans and servants. A still larger proportion of the population of Alderney, than of either of the other islands, is composed of strangers. They are chiefly French and Irish, employed on the Harbour works, and English soldiers of the regiments quartered there. In Guernsey, the proportion of strangers is much smaller. There are hardly any resident strangers in Sark.

6. Revenue and Debt.

The annual revenue of the island of Guernsey, obtained from the taxes on wine and spirits, and licenses to publicans, amounted, in 1860, to about £8,000; and from the market monopoly, £400. The income from the harbour was, in that year, £7,727 18s. 6d., and had been increasing steadily and rapidly since the year 1847, when it amounted only to £784 8s. 7d. On the other hand, the public debt of the island, independently of the harbour works, was about £80,000; and the harbour debt (including that for St. Sampson's), £130,613. With the exception of £40,000 raised on one pound bank notes, payable on demand, the whole amount of this debt is in the form of bonds, bearing interest at three per cent., and payable at very short notice. Great confidence is shown by the holders of these bonds, who are chiefly natives of the island; and no difficulty whatever has been experienced in raising loans for public purposes, on terms which must be regarded as exceedingly favourable. It is intended that the harbour debt shall be gradually reduced, before any further expenses of importance are incurred.

The revenue of Jersey is also chiefly derived from the "Impot," or tax on wines and spirits, originally (in the reign of Charles II.) appropriated for the building and maintaining of a college, or workhouse and house of relief, and for certain

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purposes of defence. By an order in council in 1803, one-third of this impost was reserved for war purposes. At this time, the produce amounted only to about £5,000. In 1823, when the first steamer made its appearance in Jersey, it amounted to £7,487; and, in 1843, to £16,500. It now approaches £18,000. The harbour dues yield a large and increasing revenue.

There is also a crown revenue, fluctuating with the price of wheat, and, at the present time (1862), amounting to £2,200. This is independent of a valuable crown property on the east side of the island, near St. Catherine's Bay, at present yielding an income of £1,200.

The public debt of Jersey, incurred in the construction of the harbour and other works, is about £150,000 sterling. Of this, about one-third is called the harbour debt. There is also a debt of the Assembly of the governor, bailiff, and jurats, amounting to £15,067. No special sinking fund exists; but the general revenue is in excess of the expenditure.

THE END.

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